Author Archives: gymnosperm

Paradise to Ice

There are Edens on earth today. They are not found toward the North and South Poles today, but for most of earth history they were.  What causes the planet to transition from paradise to ice is a matter of considerable … Continue reading

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The Missing 13C

A couple years back we decided to try making an isotope integrated Carbon cycle model, to see if we could replicate the isotopic “excursions” evident in the geological record. This effort foundered because we couldn’t even balance the current Carbon … Continue reading

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MODTRAN, The One ppm Exercise

MODTRAN is impressively nuanced sometimes. Ordinarily MODTRAN is used on a macro scale at plausible altitudes and greenhouse gas concentrations, but it definitely resolves at single meters of altitude and single ppm of greenhouse gasses. Here we explore one ppm … Continue reading

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Infinity and Things to Do.

Infinity is meaningless. Everything is nothing. When you rise every morning, the possibilities are infinite. The difference between everything and nothing is you.

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Alexa and Chatty Cathy

Chatty Cathy was a doll. You could pull this string on her and she would say something random. She was the first electronic fortune cookie. She could say  maybe a dozen and a half different things. Never anything cogent. Some tangy things … Continue reading

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The Terribly Tenacious Trough

  Humans are prone to emotional conclusions like “the weather has gone crazy”. Last year at this time, even with the normal rainfall in the north half of the state, many asserted that California was in “new normal” permanent drought. … Continue reading

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Effective Radiative Level

There is this concept that by averaging all the different radiative spectra that satellites see from earth from very high altitudes an Effective Radiative Level can be derived that has meaning for the radiation balance for the planet. The basic … Continue reading

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