Author Archives: gymnosperm

Pandemic Seasonality

We do not yet understand seasonality in viruses. There are ideas about UV from sunlight zapping them. There are ideas about elevated vitamin D in humans during the warm season. There are ideas that warm weather just dries them out, … Continue reading

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The Shapes of Pandemic Curves

Getting monthly data for even 1957 and 1968 is tough sledding. We finally found in the CDC Vital Statistics Archives monthly data for these pandemics. Monthly data for surrounding years is available for 1968, but only 1957 and 58 for … Continue reading

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Unified Geological Map of the Grand Canyon

We were puzzled about the Supergroup so we bought a pdf map from the Geological Society of America that covered the eastern part. We found that a forest of inconsequential faults, strikes and dips, and other notations was distracting us … Continue reading

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A River Runner’s Guide to Grand Canyon Geology VI: The Schists

Geologists have great fun with puns on the term “schist”. Technically, it refers to metamorphic rock; rock that has been altered by high temperature and pressure. There are several grades of schist, our former favorite was “blue schist” as a … Continue reading

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A River Runner’s Guide to Grand Canyon Geology V: Transects

River runners follow the water. The water is in our blood, and following it is what we do. We began this series by using the Colorado River as a transect, and following the drainages up to the South Rim as … Continue reading

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A River Runner’s Guide to Grand Canyon Geology IV: Whither the Supergroup?

We left off the last post having seen the complete Supergroup sequence of over two miles of Neoproterozoic and Mesoproterozoic sediments. The river never encounters the Neoproterozoic part, roughly half. These lie above the river on the North Rim side … Continue reading

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A River Runner’s Guide to Grand Canyon Geology III: The Supergroup

A typical visitor to the Grand Canyon looks down from the rim through about a mile of sediments to the river. Most of these are Paleozoic sediments extending back about 515 million years. They appear to be level, although in … Continue reading

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A River Runner’s Guide to Grand Canyon Geology II: Muddy Creek and the Formation Problem

One might think that by now we would understand pretty well how the Grand Canyon formed. We don’t. Central to the problems of how and when the current Grand Canyon formed is the Muddy Creek Formation, a bunch of freshwater … Continue reading

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A River Runner’s Guide To Grand Canyon Geology

River runners have a different perspective on Grand Canyon geology. Remarkably, the put in at Lee’s Ferry is above the entire Grand Canyon sequence, and all the strata seem to emerge in turn from the river. This makes sense, but … Continue reading

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The Temperature and Altitude of Radiation to Space III

We left of the last post having found that brightness temperature was hopelessly asymmetric to radiance in the main CO2 deviation from the Planck temperature. This discovery dashed all hope of using brightness temperature to determine the temperatures of the … Continue reading

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